The technology applied to any kind of land use will determine whether sustainable use and production will be made on a piece of land. For more information, you can see at hydraulic works.
Soil and water conservation methods can be divided into three groups, namely:
The vegetative method
Vegetative method is a way of land management by using plants as a means of soil conservation. These ground cover plants in addition to preventing or controlling erosion hazards can also function to improve soil structure, adding soil organic matter, preventing nutrient leaching processes and reducing soil temperature fluctuations.
The vegetative methods for soil and water conservation include the following: cover crop covering rainwater to indirectly affect soil surface, increase soil fertility (as green manure), reduce soil erosion by water and maintain soil productivity level.
The use of grass cultivation is almost the same as the ground cover, but has other benefits, namely as animal feed and terracing reinforcement. The way of planting can be in a row, line or by contour.
Use of crop residues for soil conservation may take the form of mulch or green manure. With mulch the leaves or stem of the plant is spread over the soil surface, whereas with the green manure the remnants of the plant are immersed in the soil.
The mechanical way is the way of land management of land by using physical facilities such as soil and rock as a means of conservation of the soil. The goal is to slow the flow of water on the surface, reduce erosion and accommodate and drain the flow of surface water.
Included in the mechanical methods for soil and water conservation include soil treatment. Soil treatment is any mechanical manipulation of the soil required to create a good soil condition for plant growth. The ultimate goal of tillage is to prepare seedlings, create good roots, immerse the remains of the plants and eradicate the weeds.
Mechanical-mechanical erosion control is a preservation effort of the soil to reduce the amount of soil lost in agricultural land by certain mechanical means. In relation to mechanical soil improvement efforts aimed at slowing the flow of the surface and accommodating and continuing to channel the surface flow with a non-destructive soil erosion.
Soil processing according to the contour is every type of soil processing (hijacking, digging, equity) following the contour line so that the formation of grooves and paths of the soil pile contour and cut the slope. These ground plots will inhibit the flow of water on the surface and prevent erosion so as to support conservation in dry areas. The main advantage of tillage according to the contour is the formation of a surface flow inhibitor that allows water absorption and avoids the transport of soil. Therefore, in dry climates soil processing according to the contour is also very effective for this conservation.
Terracing is to alter the sloping terrain to gradually reduce the flow rate of the surface and hold and hold it for more water to sink into the soil through infiltration. Terracing works to reduce slope length and retain water, thus reducing the speed and amount of surface flow and allowing soil absorption, thereby decreasing erosion.
Stability of the soil structure is one of the soil properties that determines the level of soil sensitivity to erosion. What is meant by chemical means in erosion prevention efforts, namely by the use of soil conditioner or soil ingredients in terms of improving soil structure so that the soil will remain resistant to erosion.
The chemical as soil conditioner has a great influence on soil aggregate stability. The effect is long-term because the compound is resistant to soil microbes. Soil permeability is increased and erosion decreases. The material also improves seasonal crop growth on heavy clays.